1 The New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Limited, Private Bag 92169, Auckland 1142, NZ
In the last decade there has been a significant increase globally in the extent of covered cropping. Greenhouses (and similar structures) offer increased protection from climate variability, opportunities for efficient water use, and opportunities for reduced pesticide inputs through the use of biological control. The use of biological control in covered crops has increased markedly in some European countries in recent years, often driven by a combination of public pressure for low residue produce, grower concern about pesticide resistance and government incentives. Over 150 biological control species are now commercially available around the world and more than 50,000 ha of greenhouses use biological control. In Australasia, the uptake of biological control in covered crops has been slow, in part because of the unique challenges that growers face here. In both countries, biosecurity regulations restrict the import of new biological control agents and only approximately 25 insect species are currently commercially available for biological control in Australasia. In addition, in New Zealand the establishment of a new pest species (the tomato potato psyllid) has severely disrupted existing IPM programmes. Recent advances and set-backs in Australasian IPM will be discussed, and future prospects examined.